尚能风力

Technology

Hybrid Power System Profile

Update:2014-10-11




1976

The NASA Lewis Research Center starts installing 83 photovoltaic power systems across the globe, to provide vaccine refrigeration, room lighting, medical clinic lighting, telecommunications, water pumping, grain milling and classroom television.

1977

Worldwide photovoltaic production exceeds 500 kilowatts.

1982

Volkswagon of Germany begins testing photovoltaic arrays mounted on the roofs of Dasher station wagons, generating 160 watts for the ignition.

1983

Worldwide photovoltaic production exceeds 21.3 megawatts.

1985

The University of New South Wales breaks the 20% efficiency barrier for silicon solar cells under 1-sun conditions.

1992

A 7.5 kilowatt prototype dish system using an advanced stretch membrane concentrator becomes operational.

1994

The first solar dish generator using a free-piston Stirling engine is connected to an existing utility grid.

1996

The world's most advanced solar-powered airplane, the Icare, with 3,000 super-efficient solar cells, flies over Germany.

1999

Worldwide photovoltaic production exceeds 200 megawatts.

2000

Astronauts at the International Space Station begin installing solar panels on what becomes the largest solar power array deployed in space.

2002

Japan installs 25,000 solar rooftops on homes throughout the country.

2003

Global investment in solar and wind power exceeds US$20 billion per annum.

 

 

2006

Worldwide photovoltaic production exceeds 2500 megawatts.


Types of PV technologies
There are essentially two types of PV technology, crystalline and thin-film. Crystalline can again be broken down into two types:
• Monocrystalline Cells - These are made using cells cut from a single cylindrical crystal of silicon. While monocrystalline cells offer the highest efficiency (approximately 18% conversion of incident sunlight), their complex manufacturing process makes them slightly more expensive.
• Polycrystalline Cells - These are made by cutting micro-fine wafers from ingots of molten and recrystallized silicon. Polycrystalline cells are cheaper to produce, but there is a slight compromise on efficiency (approximately 14% conversion of incident sunlight).
Thin film PV is made by depositing an ultra thin layer of photovoltaic material onto a substrate. The most common type of thin-film PV is made from the material a-Si (amorphous silicon), but numerous other materials such as CIGS (copper indium/gallium diselenide) CIS (copper indium selenide), CdTe (Cadmium Teluride), dye-sensitized cells and organic solar cells are also possible.
Types of PV Systems
PV technology was first applied in space, by providing electricity to satellites. Today, PV systems can be used to power just about anything on Earth. PV systems operate in two basic forms.
Grid Connected PV Systems
These systems are connected to a broader electricity network. During the day, the solar electricity generated by the system is either used immediately or sold off to electricity supply companies. In the evening, when the system is unable to supply immediate power, electricity can be bought back from the network.
Off Grid PV Systems
These systems are used in isolation of electricity grids, and may be used to power radio repeater stations, telephone booths and street lighting. There is also a growing market for mobile PV in the boat and caravan leisure market. Off Grid (also known as Stand-Alone) PV systems also provide invaluable and affordable electricity in developing countries, where conventional electricity grids are unreliable or non-existent.